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Acknowledgements and Reading List


I would like to record my thanks to several organisations and individuals who enabled me to pursue this research, especially:
The Census Research Unit of the University of Durham (1974-78). Besides offering me a Research Fellowship, funded by the ESRC, the CRU gave me my first introduction to census analysis and provided access to a DVST display for my graphical explorations. I am grateful to all those in the CRU and in the Department of Geography who stimulated my learning and for using my signed chi-square measure in People in Britain – a census atlas (HMSO, 1980).
The University of Hull (1979 – 1985) for providing facilities for my unfunded personal research through an honorary appointment in the Department of Geography. I am particularly grateful for the support of other CISRG members, and of Professors Roy Ward (Geography) and Geoff Cook (Computer Science) for not only taking on board “a bride without a dowry” but also for part-funding the dissemination of my ideas.
I am very grateful to the support staff in both Universities for their invaluable help and to my husband for his encouragement and unswerving support.
Some references (others may be found in the listed papers)
Bradford M, Robson, B and Tye, R(1995) Constructing an urban deprivation index:: a way of meeting the need for flexibility, Environment and Planning A 27, 519 – 33.

Choynowski, M (1959) Maps based on probabilities, J AM Statist. Ass. 54, 385 – 388.

Connelly,C and Chisholm, M (1999) The Use of indicators for targeting public expenditure: the Index of Local Deprivation’, Environment and Planning C, (will be completed shortly).
Carley, M (1981) Social Measurement and Social Indicators – issues of policy and theory, Allen and Unwin, London.
CRU/OPCS/GRO (1980) People in Britain – a census atlas, HMSO, London

DETR, Department of Environment, Transport and Regions (2000) [last accessed, 9 Nov 2000]

Dale, A and Marsh, C (eds, 1993) The 1991 Census User’s Guide, HMSO, London

Edwards, J (1975) Social indicators, urban deprivation and positive discrimination, J Social Policy 4, 275 – 287.

Foley, J (2000) Getting there: the top ten problems left, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 20 (1), 66 – 68.

Holtermann, S (1975) Areas of urban deprivationin Great Britain – an analysis of 1971 data, Social Trends 6, 33 – 47.

Howe, M G (1970) National Atlas of Disease and Mortality in the United Kingdom, Nelson, London.

Johnston, R J (1980) On the nature of explanation in human geography, Trans. Inst. Br. Geog. NS 5, 402 – 412.
Rhind, D W, Evans, I S and Visvalingam, M (1980) Making a national atlas of population by computer, Cartographic J 17 (1), 3 – 11
Visvalingam, M (1976) Chi-square as an alternative to ratios for statistical mapping and analysis, Census Research Unit Working Paper No 8, Department of Geography, University of Durham.

Visvalingam, M (1978) The signed chi-square measure for mapping, Cartographic J 15, 93 – 98
Visvalingam, M (1981) The signed chi-score measure for the classification and mapping of polychotomous data, Cartographic J 18 (1), 32 – 43

Visvalingam, M (1983a) The operational definition of area-based social indicators, Environment and Planning A 15, 831 – 839.

Visvalingam, M (1983b) Area-based social indicators: signed chi-square as an alterantive to ratios, Int J. Soc.Ind. Res. 13, 311 – 329.

Visvalingam, M (1983c) An examination of some criticisms of area-based policies, Census Research Unit Working Paper 22, Department of Geography, University of Durham.

Visvalingam, M (1985) Concept refinement in social planning through the graphical representation of large data sets, in Shackel, B (ed.) Human-Computer Interaction – Interact ’84, North-Holland.

Visvalingam, M (1990) Trends and concerns in Digital Cartography, Computer-Aided Design 22 (3), 115 – 130
Visvalingam, M (1994) Visualization in GIS, Cartography and ViSC, in H M Hearnshaw and D J Unwin (eds.) Visualization in Geographical Information Systems, Wiley,
Chapter 3, 18 – 25.